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  Lak'ech Ala K'in  "I am you, and you are me." Maya Greeting

Underwater Museum




Mexico's Caribbean Sea - Monumental underwater sculptural museum in the waters surrounding Cancun, Isla Mujeres and Punta Nizuc has more than 400 life-size casts submerged.


The Underwater Museum is in Mexico’s National Marine Park of Cancun, Isla Mujeres and Punta Nizuc. Artist Jason deCaires Taylor covered this seabed with hundreds of life-size statues, art that Taylor and his partners from the National Marine Park and the Cancun Nautical Association hope will eventually form a reef structure for marine life to colonize.

Taylor made each piece from cement, sand, micro silica and fiber glass—a combo said to promote coral life—and placed the installation over 1,600 square feet (about 150 square meters).


Tulúm


Tulúm © María O. Baum

Zama - Tulúm - City of Dawn 

Complete site with pictures:  Tulúm – The Maya City of Dawn

1200 AD 
Once an important trading port, administrative, ceremonial and spiritual center.
This ancient Maya city is walled and has a magnificent view of the turquoise waters of the Caribbean. It played a very important role in the Caste Wars of 1890 when the Maya were fighting for their rights and took refuge in the site.

La Casa del Cenote, “The House of the Well.” 
Built over a Cenote, the entrance of the Maya Sacred Underworld, has a tomb in the middle.
Several tiny shrines that some think were made to place offerings to the Aluxes, or protectors of the Earth and spiritual places surround the city.
Templo del Dios Descendiente, the Descending God or Flying God, is carved in stone above the entrance.

I'Tzamna', God and Creator of the Maya Civilization

The god that Could The Fly, has wings and his head is looking down towards the floor in a flying position. The man that gave the knowledge to the Maya world and considered the father of their Culture; the Flying God, resides in the sky. 
He created the Maya and came to their aid to teach them. He taught the Maya about the crops, maize, cacao, and medicine; all about herbs, trees and the most important teaching; the respect and love to the Cosmos, Mother Earth and every living being. 
His teachings included the Sacred Calendars and their Writing. Sacred to them, their God creator from the sky, had 13 children on earth.  
Tonacatecuhtli is the corresponding deity in the Aztec culture.

The creator of the sky, had 13 children on earth (tribes?).
    "Mother Earth is the youngest of all his children - por ay - somewhere we have another 12 siblings, other worlds like ours, other brothers." Notes M. O. Baum

El creador de su cielo, tuvo 13 hijos en la tierra (tribus?).
   “La madre tierra es la mas chiquita de todos sus hijos, por ay tenemos otros 12 hermanitos, otros mundos como los nuestros, otros hermanos”. Notas M. O. Baum
 

Temple of the Descending God 
You can't enter in the Descending God Temple anymore, unless you get a special permit in Cancún or in Chetumal. 
On the inside of the room, opposite site where the stone relief of the Descending God is, there is a figure of a star. This star is aligned with a small window on the opposite side of the room towards the sea. 
Legend says that it points directly to where the Flying God came from. Some say Atlantis or Bimini? Some speculate that is aligned to the stars so that the priests would know when was the Spring Equinox, the time to plant corn. 

So was it an astronomical calendar? Or is it the Venus Cycle?

This is from Michael Meyer "Venus"; 
   "Because Venus rotates one-hundred and eighty degrees on its polar axis between inferior conjunctions, at each superior conjunction Venus shows Earth the face that during the inferior conjunction faced the Sun, while the side that was facing the Earth during the conjunction now faces the Sun. But this is not the most extraordinary feature of the Venus cycle. When one plots the cycle of any important turning point of the cycle of Venus for five or more consecutive cycles, a remarkable pattern forcefully emerges — a five-pointed star!"


Casa de las Columnas
House of the Columns - structure used as a business center.

El Castillo
The Castle is on the highest part of the site; some speculate it was used as a lighthouse. This Temple was dedicated to Kukulcán equivalent of the Aztec god Topiltzin Cē Ācatl Quetzalcōatl, the feathered serpent; the god that slivered like a snake and could fly because he was inside a feathered serpent.

El Palacio or Halach U'inic - The Palace - House of the First Lord, believed to be a residence.

Templo de la Estela
Temple of the Stella where fragments were found of a stone inscribed with the Maya date of 564 AD. Now it is at the British Museum.

Templo de los Frescos 
Mural Temple with murals on the exterior and masks of the rain god Chaac. Colored murals and red hand prints (count the fingers). Masks of Chaac, the rain god, and the Descending God.

Templo del Dios del Viento
Temple of the God of the Wind is a small room on a round platform. There are several small shrines and a dried Cenote.
© María O. Baum
Something to think about 


  • The walls flare outward and the doorways inward.
  • Look at the murals on top of the main entrance of the Temple of the Frescoes  In the central niche there is a sculpture of the Descending God, there are several large relief masks and I'tzamná', the flying God, the Sky, the God of Gods of the Maya. 
  • The Goddess I'xchel that represents fertility, protector of pregnant women, and several other figures. 
  • Red hands painted on the wall; count the fingers.
  • The maize and fish are symbols of fertility.
  • Mosquito Repellent and bathing suit, as you can swim in the beautiful waters while you admire the temples.
Tulúm © María O. Baum

Driving Directions

Approximately two hours from Cancún (Hwy #307). Wonderful  road but slow because of the traffic. A couple of barricades, guard by soldiers, will flag a car or truck to check for drunks, drugs or guns. (When we went to Palenque last month, they searched every car. They were very nice and you won't have any problem if you are not drunk, have guns or drugs).

Tulúm is a wonderful site and one of the most visited. I personally love the surroundings and the fact that you can swim while watching the pyramids on top of the cliff, but it is so manicured, so perfect, and now, with all the visitors, you can't go inside the temples. The amount of visitors is such that a shopping center charges for the parking lot however the money doesn't go towards the archaeological site.
Take mosquito repellent, a towel, bathing suit, sunblock and hat! :)

S'ian Ka'an Reserve

From Tulúm you can continue to the wonderful S'ian Ka'an Reserve or Biosfera de Sian Ka'an that is only 15 minutes from the site. Watersports and Parks in the Yucatán


© María O. Baum

Muyil - Chumyaxché

Via Tulúm Town towards Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Hwy 307)) south for 40 miles approx. you will find on your left hand side, after a curve, a tiny magical site in the entrance of the town of Muyil also known as Chumyaxché.

The man in charge, if it is not open, lives in front of the site, crossing the highway. Wait a couple of minutes and if the gate is close, honk the horn!

Chumyaxché
With more than 140 temples covered with vegetation, 40 acres of jungle and only a few pyramids that are completely uncovered; this site is a nice change from Tulúm. The 56 ft. pyramid has a splendid view and a room on the top that has a pelican carved on the stone and some paintings. Be careful if you climb the pyramids.
Maya Roads

A Saché, (from the Maya "Sa" white and "Che'" path or road), the wonderful Maya road made of  sea-shells, sap of the zapote tree, rocks and lime, connects this site to the Muyil Lagoon that is part of the S'ian Ka'an Reseve and then ends at the sea. 
The Lagoon is connected to the open sea by a narrow canal that was dredged by the ancient Maya so that they would have access to the open sea. 
You can continue from Chumyaxché to the entrance of S'ian Ka'an Reserve and walk to the lagoon for an extra fee where you can see the wonderful wildlife and vegetation. If you don't want to walk, you can continue towards Felipe Carrillo Puerto and make an immediate left after the archaeological site; first left. 
This rural road takes you to the Lake where you can park and take a boat tour. Watch on the side of the road on your left and right sides for carvings on the rock. 
Mosquito repellent; you are in the jungle! 
Ask permission to the Aluxes when you enter their site!

Heading back to Cobá, in the Tulúm-Cobá road (44 Km.), we stopped on the Km. 22 to visit a sculptor studio on the right side of the road. We were surprised of all the knowledge, incredible old books and quality museum copies of Ancient Maya symbols and sculptures that he and his father make. If you have a chance, stop and talk to them.
Maya Symbol
Wonderful site of Videos and Murals from the Mexican University: http://www.pinturamural.esteticas.unam.mx/video.html

Product Details

Let's Explore! "El Duende," a Maya Legend - Illustrated children's book

Maya Journey Virtual Journey

Ek'Balam - Valladolid - Chichén-Itzá - Cobá

Cobá © María O. Baum
Cobá - Ruffled or muddy waters - 500-900

Trading post between Belize and Honduras, this 67 square miles of jungle, has large number of carved reliefs or Stelae or Estelas. 
Impressive roads or "Sacbe'" (plural sacbe'ob); elevated roads made of stone, shells, lime and plaster that connect the Maya sites. 
The longest in Cobá runs over 62 miles/99.7 Km.. 
50,000 people lived in this well planned city.
Cobá is in between two lakes: Lake Cobá and Lake Macanxoc. 
Do not swim, big crocs own both lakes.

Cobá © María O. Baum
Main Structures
  • Nohoch Mul or 'large hill' pyramid; 138 feet tall. 
  • Templo de la Iglesia, 'Temple of the Church', and many other wonderful structures. 
  • Grupo Macanxoc or Group C is where the group of Stelae or estelas are.
Estela # 1 has the last calculation of the Maya Date of December 12, 2012. The last day of the Maya calendar where the new era begins.

Their calculations of Venus, Earth, Mars and Jupiter are incredible and exact. 
One of their calendars, the one with 260 nights, the time of the gestation, and, the magnetic orientation of the site, has been very controversial. The Feng Shui style site has a perfect orientation.

The Maya studied Venus, and, in the Dresden Codex (a Maya glyph book), they explain with incredible precision, the cycles of Venus.
It assigns long counts to a table of eclipses and a table of the apparitions of Venus. 

Their ancient calendar is still in use; "La Voz de los Mayas," a local Maya newspaper, reported that the butterflies, that every year come to the site and stay for a while, were leaving the site. 
The Newspaper announced that a "huge storm" was coming just by watching the butterflies. 
They predicted the hurricane before the rest of the world and they were exactly on the date.
Maya Symbols and Mythology

TIPS 
The best way to visit this site is to stay in a local hotel, get there when they open at 8 a.m., get a guide and after you hear all the information about the site, rent a bicycle or tricycle and go on your own. 
Do not miss the Stelae that are on the furthest point. Have lunch, relax and return for a walk.

Cobá © María O. Baum
Try to be quiet so that you can see all the wonderful wildlife. 
Don't forget sunblock, water, hat and repellent; you are in the jungle!
Ask the guide about the Aluxes. Ask him to teach you how to ask permission when you enter an Archeological site. Find the magic of the place! 
Talk to the locals. 
They love to tell you their experiences once they know you are aware of them. 
A young, wonderful kid, Benilde Aldair, draw this picture for us. This is how he saw the Aluxe'ob - Aluxes (alushes).
Cobá © María O. Baum
We always stay at a beautiful hotel near the site, that is in front of the lake, at walking distance of the archeological entrance. This way we leave the car at the hotel, visit the site early in the morning, return to the Hotel to have lunch and swim, and, 3 hours before they close we head back to the site.
Every time we visit it, we see different things that we missed before.
Every day the archeologists are discovering new sites. Every day they are re-writing History.
 Don't miss the night sky!

 Tips
 
TRAVEL ESSENTIALS, Passport, Travel Warnings


The Magical Medicinal Tea - Jamaica Flower Dring - Agua de Jamaica 
(Hibiscus Organic flowers) a wonderful refreshing drink (tea), that, in clinical trials, is very promising. Considered a 'sacred medicinal water' for centuries, the tea is prepared with the dry flowers of the hibiscus;
- 2 Cups of Jamaica flowers dried and clean, 10 cups of water, optional: 3/4 cup of sugar.
When the water is boiling, add the flowers and let them boil for 10 min.. Strain, taking all the leaves out, add sugar and serve it cold.  The flower "Jamaica" (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.- "Malvaceas Family" like Cacao and Hibiscus) is proven to be an excellent remedy for cholesterol and inflammation.
Clinical study IMSS, Oaxaca 

Ek'Balam - Valladolid - Chichén-Itzá - Cobá

Ek'Balam - Black Jaguar © María O. Baum
Part of the Talol Empire, Ek' Balam was one of the longest continuously inhabited area; a large and powerful city. 
Surrounded by protective walls and 4 beautiful arches at the entrance of the Sacbé; the Maya roads, made of shells, lime, sap of the Zapote tree, and stones. 
The roads connected the city with other Maya sites. The Maya traveled at night to avoid the heat, and, by using shells, the light of the moon reflected on them.

The Maya King Coch-Cal-Balam, founded Ek' Balam, but, U'kil-Kan Lek-T'ok, the powerful ruller is buried in the main pyramid called the Acropolis, where life-sized stucco figures were excavated in perfect condition, having been carefully buried by the ancient Maya about 1200 years ago. 
U'Kil-Kan Lek-Tok became the ruler of the throne in 770 and died 30 years later. During his reign, Ek' Balam became the greatest power in the northeastern region of the Yucatán.
There is a beautiful oval palace, a ball court, a sweat lodge and other impressive structures and Temples. 
There are several plazas and a water system on the left side of the main pyramid.
One of the monuments depicts a ruler of Ek' Balam; U'kit Jol' A'hkul, wearing a headdress with stacked monster snouts holding a scepter and an offering. Above the ruler, is U'kil-Kan Lek-T'ok, the powerful man that ruled Ek' Balam in 800 AD.
The Acropolis and the Winged Maya Warriors -Ek'Balam - Black Jaguar © María O. Baum
Complete site with pictures: Ek’Balam “The Great Talol Maya Empire”
The Acropolis, the impressive pyramid, is the tomb of U'kil-KanLek-T'ok, his name has been deduced from a glyph in the tomb. The emblem glyph named the ruler as the "Divine Lord of Talol," as the kingdom was known in ancient times.
There are two sculptures of a snake head on the stairs of the lowest level. Their tongue is covered with glyphs.
The Acropolis, an impressive building, has a jaguar's mouth with beautiful winged Maya warrior's sculptures perfectly preserved on the top.
Take your time looking at the different symbols. It is worth it to take a guide and then walk on your own.
Ek-Balam © María O. Baum
   
The sculptures are perfectly preserved because they were discovered until 1999. Before that, it was a minor site. Every day new discoveries on the site are changing the History books.
The Chenes Style serpent-mouth at the top of the Acropolis, is the entrance to the tomb that the Maya covered with dirt when they abandoned the city. The column in the center is the monster's nose.
The figures of the winged Maya warriors are about the height of a Maya. Not long after Ukit Kan Le'k Tok' was buried inside the building, it was carefully filled with powdered limestone and rocks and then the entire facade was covered.
Ek'Balam - Black Jaguar © María O. Baum
TIPS:
Ek'Balam - Black Jaguar © María O. Baum
As you leave the site, turn right to visit the Maya Village of Ek' Balam, where wonderful crafts and hammocks are made. Most of the people still speak Maya. 
The priest visits the town sporadically, the teacher comes from far away and there is no doctor.
Visit Ek-Balam and climb to the top before someone falls from the top of the pyramid, as it happened in Cobá, where thanks to that incident, nobody is allowed to climb.
When you climb to the top, pay special attention to the painted figures on the side of the right door. They are similar to the ones found in Egypt.
Hat, sun block, repellent and good shoes! 

Ask the guides about the Legend of the Aluxes,the small beings that take care of the Sacred Maya sites and punish the people that don't take care of them. Local people built a small hut at the entrance of the archaeological site for the Aluxes. Sometimes is used as a healing place, please respect the people that are being healed and don't interrupt them. Have fun and enjoy this magical place!

Driving Cobáto EK' Balam 

Wonderful road; one and a half lanes on each side. In México the half lane is a courtesy lane to allow people to pass. 
Bare to the right half lane when you see another vehicle coming to allow them to pass. Watch your speed. 
Take the road to Valladolid approximately 40 Km. Ek-B'alam is 8 miles North of the "Cuota" (Toll Road) on the road from Valladolid-Tizimin. 

Chichén-Itzá to Ek' Balam - 40 Km approx.; take the Cuota road (toll road) which is faster or the state road (one lane each way) towards Valladolid; the exit is via Tizimin.

Cancún to Ek' Balam - 100 Miles West of Cancún.

Valladolid - Ek' Balam - 19 Miles - Valladolid is a colonial town midway between Cancún and Mérida. 
Main attractions: 
Cathedral (built on top of a sacred Maya place and  pyramid, as the Spanish used to do. They destroyed the pyramids, used the stones to construct their churches; that way the locals were used to worship in that site).
Zócalo, or Main Square. 
There are 7 Churches around the town and everyone is on top of a Maya sacred site. 
San Bernardino Convent was built over the Cenote Sis-H'a, a sacred entrance to the underworld for the ancient Maya. 
The other Cenote in the town is Zaci, with a restaurant that has a view of the Cenote and the people swimming in it. This is an open Cenote.
© María O. Baum
On the old road Valadolid-Chichén-Itzá, you will find the Cenote X-Ke-Ken, a beautiful Cenote that I will not visit again. Young children dive from the top, about 40 ft., to get some pesos.

CHICHĖN-ITZÁ

Chichén-Itzá - © María O. Baum
Complete site with pictures and Scanner-Laser pictures: Chichén-Itzá – Balankanché Maya Caves 

CHICHĖN-ITZÁ - "At the mouth of the well of the Itza," "enchanted waters."
One of the New Seven Wonders of the Modern World
30 minutes West of Valladolid.

Eclipses, equinoxes, solstices, etc., were observed and studied by the priests who controlled not only the calendar, but, every aspect of their life.  Maya Calendar
There are two ways to enter the site; through the town of Piste or through the Hotel Zone. 
The best deal is to stay in the Hotel Zone and start the visit early in the morning with a guide, return to your Hotel, take a swim and lunch, and return before the closing of the site and when all the tour buses are gone.
We usually stay 3 days and visit several sites. Check the times. With your entrance ticket you can go to the "Light and Sound Show" on the evening; bring a flash light.
The Toltec, from Central México, united forces with the Maya to make Chichén-Itzá the most powerful city and Pilgrimage Center for over one thousand years. The Toltec – “Men of Knowledge”
Kukulcán or Quetzalcóatl (Feathered Serpent) was the name of their ruler.
Chichén-Itzá - © María O. Baum
There were 3 Sacred Cenotes, only two can be visited; Sacred Cenote and Xtoloc Cenote; Cenotes were the sacred entrance to the underworld for the Ancient Maya. 
They were all dredged: 
Thefts of Maya artifacts for the Peabody Museum at Harvard University, by the American explorer and pseudo-archaeologist Edward Thompson.  Yucatán Great Love Story
The Pyramid of Kukulcán "El Castillo", dedicated to the Feathered Serpent God "Kukulcán," has sculptures of  feathered serpents that run down the sides of the northern staircase. 
The shadows of the snakes can be seen on the spring and fall Equinox. 
The Pyramid or Temple of Kukulcán (feathered serpent deity also known as "Quetzalcóatl" by his Nahua followers in the southwestern United States and northwestern México.) 

The temple has 9 levels depicting the Maya Cosmological view; 9 levels in the Maya Underworld. 
• 91 steps on three of the sides, 92 on the staircase, giving us a total of 365 steps, or days of the year. 

The staircase, (center of the pyramid), has 13 levels; the number of levels in the "upper worlds".
  • El Caracol, "Observatory." A circular temple that served as an astronomical observatory. Maya astronomers knew from observations that Venus appeared on the western and disappeared on the eastern horizons at different times in the year, and that it took 584 days to complete one cycle; 5 of these Venus cycles equaled 8 solar years; Venus would appear at the North and South at eight year intervals. In the interior of the pyramid there is another pyramid, as the Maya used to construct one every 52 years. 
  • The archeologists just discovered another construction inside the main pyramid and are working to uncover it.  
  • The climb to the top is not allowed anymore. 
  • Inside of the pyramid there is the stone-carved throne of the King Kukulcán; a jaguar throne painted in red with spots of jade incrustations and stairways.Temple of the Warriors -The Great Market -Platform of the Skulls -Juego de Pelota or Ballcourt -Temple of the Jaguars - with feathered serpent columns, jaguars and murals.
    Sweatbaths to purify the body and soul.Cenote of Sacrifice - The Red House - House of the Deer - Temple of the Wall Panels
Akab' D'zib Palace; hieroglyphic inscriptions
High Priest Grave; tomb for one of the city ruler.
The Nunnery Complex that was the  royal palace.

Find the magic!

TIPS
Ask the guide about the Aluxes, how to ask permission when you enter the site, and, on the right side of the Observatory, walk until you find a wall; it has some carvings depicting the Aluxes. 
Bring sunscreen, hat, mosquito repellent and a flashlight for the light and show.
If you have an extra day: Visit Old Chichén; clustered within the private property of Hacienda Chichén and not open to public visits. It is part of the Maya Jungle Reserve and Nature Trails and open only to the Hacienda Chichén guests and visitors for bird watching and horseback-riding tours. Ask at the Villas Arqueológicas Hotel where they offer great guides and tours at a great price.
If you have a chance, read "La Peregrina" from Alma Reed. A wonderful historical love story. Part of this wonderful story took place in the Hacienda.

Chichén Itzá to Balankanche Caves


Balankanche Caves , 'Throne of the Jaguar Priest'
Wonderful magical place with idols and ancient pottery in the positions where they were left by the Ancient Maya. 6 km from Chichén Itzá (Road #180) Piste towards Valladolid. 
This was an important sacred site.
There is an altar, the "Balam Throne", where the Mayas celebrated their ceremonies. 
The stalactite and stalagmite formations are wonderful. There is a 20+ ft. formation of stalagmites in the form of a Ceiba tree, the sacred tree of the Maya that represents the 3 levels: the underworld (roots), the physical level (trunk) and the heavens (branches). 
There is a small museum at the entrance, coffee and a botanical garden. The light and sound show is presented in English, Spanish and French. This fascinating site, in a limestone cave, was discovered by accident in 1959. Undisturbed for centuries, its entrance was blocked with stone and shrub.
There is a wonderful picture of the altar in: CyArk

Architecture - Music - Legends

                                                                 
 
Chichén-Itzá - © María O. Baum



Writing
Hieroglyphs in rows or columns and read from left to right and from bottom to the top.
The Priests wrote Códices or Codex, the sacred books made from bark in a form of accordion. The Maya registered all their knowledge and history, but when the Spanish invaded, almost all of all their recorded history, idols and ceramic were destroyed.

Mathematics
The Olmec civilization were the ones that created the mathematics, the Maya were the ones that perfected it. They represented the cero as a seashell centuries before the Hindus had it.
Dot - represents number one.
Bar - represents number five.
Shell - represents the cero.

                


Architecture:
Maya Arch or False Arch
Maya - Toltec Style - Temples dedicated to the serpent god Kukulcán. Examples found in Chichén Itzá and Tulúm.
Chenes Style - Temples with columns heavily decorated with masks of the rain god Chaac.
Río Bec Style - Ornamental parallel towers. Examples found in Hormiguero and Rio Bec.
Peten Style - High pyramids; Tikal.
Puuc Style - Palaces, like Uxmal, Sayil, Labná. "puuc" is derived from the Maya term for "hill".
Northwestern Style - Buildings decorated with human figures like Palenque.
Usumacinta Region Style -  Decorated temples with sculptured stone lintels set above the doorways like Yaxchilán.

Music
Wind instruments - trumpets, sea shells, whistles, bells and rattles. 
Turtle shells.
Zacatlán - a drum made of a trunk tree.
Tunkul - bass drum.
Chichén-Itzá - © María O. Baum

Legends

Aluxe'ob are the Maya dwarfs that live in the caves and archaeological sites and can come with you to your home.
The story goes that they move the hammocks and wake people. They can cause sickness or great laughter. 
They throw stones at you when you walk through the Maya sacred sites or at the farms they take care of.
People ask permission to walk through the sacred Maya sites, still today. 
Farmers leave food for them and build little hutches so that they can take care of their crop. If someone steals from the farmer that owns an Aluxe’ob, he, the one that steels, will receive a big punishment by the Aluxe. 
They sleep with their eyes opened.
Some people describe them as transparent, made of air. Some say that they are like little children with black long hair and some kind of third eye in their forehead. 
Some others say that they are the ancient Maya clay figures that are in the archaeological sites and that sometimes, they come alive to play tricks. 
Copal is used to bring the Aluxes to your life. Others, say, that the Aluxes were destroyed by a lightning storm while they were dancing. 


"El Duende," a Maya Legend: The Three Treasures: Let's Explore! Bilingual Book Series/Series de Libros Bilingües



Bilingual Book Series/Series de Libros Bilingües



Balames
Old Dwarfs, with long white beards and ugly gestures, wear sandals and tunics. They are in charge of taking care of the cardinal points of the Maya cities. 

Thup, or "little finger" is the smallest of all the Balál. 
Thup will help any Balam that needs it when fighting animals and winds. Usually they smoke and throw their cigarettes in the night. Legend says we see them as flying stars. 
They are little men but not as small as the Aluxes or Duendes (elves). They are good and bad, take care of the towns and crops, but if people don't respect them and feed them, they "eat their children." 
Many accidents are prevented by them. They whistle. Sometimes they are invisible.

Bo'Ob  
Head of a lion and body of a big deer; they eat human flesh. They live in the jungle near Guatemala and come out at night. People that live near Bo'ob territory make their homes with tree trunks to protect themselves. Chicleros (Chicle workers) from Campeche swear they saw the Bo'ob and describe him like an African lion but black with long tail. 
"The smell is so bad that you can know he is near." 
In Hopelchén a man with his horse came to ask for help after confronting a Bo'ob. He was very sick until he got to Hecelchakán where he died. 

Cola Negra or E'Kuneil 
Cola Negra - Black Tail lives in the deepest parts of the mountains and has ash color and long body but the most remarkable thing is that it has a tail that splits. Legend says that it flies to the interior of the houses if he smells a baby being fed and that you die if his tail touches you.